Home Solutions Kaldo Furnace

Kaldo Furnace

Kaldo Furnace 水印

A Kaldo converter (using the Kaldo process or Stora-Kaldo process) is a rotary vessel oxygen based metal refining method. Originally applied to the refining of iron into steel, with most installations in the 1960s, the process is (2014) used primarily to refine non ferrous metals, typically copper. In that field, it is often named TBRC, or Top Blown Rotary Converter.


Steel production

Evolution of chemical composition and temperature of the liquid steel, during the blowing in a Kaldo converter. The iron content is linked with the slag composition, the others elements are taken in the metal.

The name “Kaldo” is derived from Prof. Bo Kalling, and from the Domnarvets Jernverk (Stora Kopparbergs Bergslag subsidiary) both key in the development of the process. Research into the use of a stirring to promote mixing, and therefore rate of conversion was investigated from the 1940s, and investigations into the use of oxygen began c.1948.

The converter was a top blow oxygen converter, similar to Linz-Donawitz type, using a cylindrical vessel; the vessel was tilted whilst conversion took place, with typical rotation speeds of around 30 revolutions per minute; the oxygen was injected via a lance, with slag forming materials added separately.

Disadvantages of the process, compared to non-rotating oxygen furnaces (e.g. LD type) were the higher capital cost, more difficult to upscale to higher outputs, and additional complexity (i.e. rotating parts and loading thereof).[13] Advantages included the ability to use a high proportion of scrap metal, and good controllability of final steel specification. At the Park Gate works conversion time was 90 minutes, with up to 45% scrap loading, with a capacity of 75t in a 500t total, 16 feet (4.9 m) diameter converter, with a rotation speed of 40 revs per minute.

Due to high maintenance costs the Kaldo converter did not gain widespread usage in the steel industry, with non-rotating converters being preferred.







Bottom, Barrel

Upper of Barrel,

Permanent liner






Last updated: 2024-01-03
CopyRight © www.osymen.com All Rights Reserved.